Why fine wine companies have viruses to thank

GrapesView larger image

Fine wine companies choose the very best grapes from the best vines, in order to produce wines of the highest possible standard.

But new research reveals why today's 'best' grapes may well be those that were affected by viruses millions of years ago.

For instance, a team at the University of Queensland have been looking into evidence of 30 million year old viruses in the DNA of pinot noir.

They have discovered that, when a plant like a grapevine is affected by a virus, it switches on certain repair mechanisms.

When these are complete, the viral DNA is sometimes incorporated into that of the vine and its descendants - like hanging on to the positive parts of the virus while flushing out the rest.

Dr Andrew Geering said: "Pulling new genetic material from the environment, such as from viruses that infect the plant, means evolution can be sped up considerably."

This means, even over a period as long as tens of millions of years, grapes like pinot noir may have evolved faster than they otherwise might - leading to the unique DNA makeup of the vines used today by fine wine companies all over the world.

(default) 40 queries took 113 ms
NrQueryErrorAffectedNum. rowsTook (ms)
1SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_posts`13134
2SELECT CHARACTER_SET_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS WHERE COLLATION_NAME= 'utf8_general_ci';110
3SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_images`993
4SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_post_comments`993
5SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_redirects`554
6SELECT `Redirect`.`id`, `Redirect`.`from`, `Redirect`.`to`, `Redirect`.`count`, `Redirect`.`created` FROM `ck_redirects` AS `Redirect` WHERE `Redirect`.`from` = '/news/why-fine-wine-companies-have-viruses-to-thank' LIMIT 1000
7SELECT `Post`.`id`, `Post`.`title`, `Post`.`slug`, `Post`.`introduction`, `Post`.`body`, `Post`.`image_id`, `Post`.`post_date`, `Post`.`meta_title`, `Post`.`meta_description`, `Post`.`meta_keywords`, `Post`.`status`, `Post`.`created`, `Post`.`modified`, `Image`.`id`, `Image`.`gallery_order`, `Image`.`title`, `Image`.`file`, `Image`.`dir`, `Image`.`mimetype`, `Image`.`filesize`, `Image`.`created`, `Image`.`modified` FROM `ck_posts` AS `Post` LEFT JOIN `ck_images` AS `Image` ON (`Post`.`image_id` = `Image`.`id`) WHERE `Post`.`slug` = 'why-fine-wine-companies-have-viruses-to-thank' AND `Post`.`status` = 'active' AND `Post`.`post_date` <= '2019-08-24 03:32:10' AND NOT (`Post`.`slug` = '') ORDER BY `Post`.`post_date` DESC, `Post`.`created` DESC LIMIT 1111
8SELECT `Image`.`id`, `Image`.`gallery_order`, `Image`.`title`, `Image`.`file`, `Image`.`dir`, `Image`.`mimetype`, `Image`.`filesize`, `Image`.`created`, `Image`.`modified` FROM `ck_images` AS `Image` WHERE `Image`.`id` = 2617 110
9SELECT `PostComment`.`id`, `PostComment`.`post_id`, `PostComment`.`author_id`, `PostComment`.`user_id`, `PostComment`.`comment`, `PostComment`.`status`, `PostComment`.`ip_address`, `PostComment`.`created`, `PostComment`.`modified` FROM `ck_post_comments` AS `PostComment` WHERE ((`PostComment`.`status` = 'approved') OR (((`PostComment`.`id` IS NULL) AND (`PostComment`.`status` = 'pending')))) AND `PostComment`.`post_id` = (204) 000
10SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_baskets`773
11SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_store_countries`11113
12SELECT CHARACTER_SET_NAME FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLLATIONS WHERE COLLATION_NAME= 'latin1_swedish_ci';110
13SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_delivery_methods`11113
14SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_store_countries_delivery_methods`333
15SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_basket_products`883
16SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_products`22223
17SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_regions`13133
18SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_producers`663
19SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_styles`10104
20SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_bottles`553
21SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_product_ratings`993
22SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_store_customers`773
23SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_store_customer_addresses`20203
24SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_grapes`993
25SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_grapes_products`333
26SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_product_types`774
27SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_product_types_products`333
28SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_offers`773
29SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_offers_products`333
30SELECT `Basket`.`id`, `Basket`.`created`, `Basket`.`modified`, `Basket`.`delivery_method_id`, `Basket`.`delivery_country_id`, `Basket`.`delivery`, `Basket`.`subtotal`, (`Basket`.`delivery` + `Basket`.`subtotal`) AS `Basket__total`, `DeliveryCountry`.`id`, `DeliveryCountry`.`key`, `DeliveryCountry`.`iso`, `DeliveryCountry`.`iso3`, `DeliveryCountry`.`order`, `DeliveryCountry`.`country`, `DeliveryCountry`.`billing`, `DeliveryCountry`.`delivery`, `DeliveryCountry`.`status`, `DeliveryCountry`.`modified`, `DeliveryCountry`.`created`, `DeliveryMethod`.`id`, `DeliveryMethod`.`name`, `DeliveryMethod`.`price`, `DeliveryMethod`.`cap`, `DeliveryMethod`.`threshold`, `DeliveryMethod`.`threshold_price`, `DeliveryMethod`.`status`, `DeliveryMethod`.`modified`, `DeliveryMethod`.`created`, `DeliveryMethod`.`order`, `DeliveryMethod`.`code` FROM `ck_baskets` AS `Basket` LEFT JOIN `ck_store_countries` AS `DeliveryCountry` ON (`Basket`.`delivery_country_id` = `DeliveryCountry`.`id`) LEFT JOIN `ck_delivery_methods` AS `DeliveryMethod` ON (`Basket`.`delivery_method_id` = `DeliveryMethod`.`id`) WHERE `Basket`.`id` IS NULL LIMIT 1000
31SELECT `Region`.`name`, `Region`.`slug`, `Region`.`parent_id`, `Region`.`id`, `Region`.`modified`, `Region`.`created` FROM `ck_regions` AS `Region` WHERE `Region`.`status` = 'active' AND NOT (`Region`.`slug` = '') ORDER BY `Region`.`order` ASC 1211210
32SELECT `Product`.`id`, `Product`.`name`, `Product`.`description`, `Product`.`vintage`, `Product`.`region_id`, `Product`.`producer_id`, `Product`.`style_id`, `Product`.`bottle_id`, `Product`.`image_id`, `Product`.`bid`, `Product`.`best_seller`, `Product`.`created`, `Product`.`modified`, `Product`.`status`, `Product`.`slug`, `Product`.`meta_title`, `Product`.`meta_description`, `Product`.`meta_keywords`, `Product`.`stock`, `Product`.`stock_description`, `Product`.`original_id`, (`Product`.`price`) AS `Product__original_price`, (LEAST(IFNULL((select min(`ck_offers`.`price`) from (ck_offers join ck_offers_products) where ((`ck_offers_products`.`product_id` = `Product`.`id`) and (`ck_offers_products`.`offer_id` = `ck_offers`.`id`) and (`ck_offers`.`start_date` <= now()) and (`ck_offers`.`end_date` >= now()))),`Product`.`price`),`Product`.`price`)) AS `Product__price`, (CONCAT(`Product`.`name`, ' (£', `Product`.`price`,')')) AS `Product__detail_name` FROM `ck_products` AS `Product` WHERE `Product`.`region_id` IN (905, 899, 900, 904, 901, 902, 903, 42, 144, 86, 152, 56, 132, 134, 57, 81, 148, 1, 156, 90, 91, 4, 5, 6, 78, 7, 31, 93, 94, 32, 73, 63, 13, 37, 95, 96, 14, 70, 35, 21, 36, 24, 25, 26, 60, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 79, 43, 44, 67, 77, 84, 52, 53, 105, 135, 45, 106, 153, 47, 140, 68, 141, 111, 48, 65, 69, 113, 143, 145, 40, 83, 62, 41, 58, 114, 115, 59, 116, 49, 118, 119, 136, 120, 38, 64, 39, 121, 87, 50, 51, 71, 27, 28, 154, 150, 29, 129, 80, 155, 30, 151, 61, 122, 123, 138, 124, 125, 137, 126, 127, 85, 128, 139, 149) 1026102635
33SELECT `Region`.`id`, `Region`.`name`, `Region`.`parent_id`, `Region`.`lft`, `Region`.`rght`, `Region`.`order`, `Region`.`slug`, `Region`.`meta_title`, `Region`.`meta_description`, `Region`.`meta_keywords`, `Region`.`status`, `Region`.`created`, `Region`.`modified` FROM `ck_regions` AS `Region` WHERE `Region`.`status` = 'active' AND NOT (`Region`.`slug` = '') ORDER BY `Region`.`order` ASC 1211211
34SELECT `Style`.`slug`, `Style`.`name` FROM `ck_styles` AS `Style` WHERE 1 = 1 880
35SELECT `RightBanner`.`id`, `RightBanner`.`name`, `RightBanner`.`image_id`, `RightBanner`.`url`, `RightBanner`.`status`, `RightBanner`.`created`, `RightBanner`.`modified`, `Image`.`id`, `Image`.`gallery_order`, `Image`.`title`, `Image`.`file`, `Image`.`dir`, `Image`.`mimetype`, `Image`.`filesize`, `Image`.`created`, `Image`.`modified` FROM `ck_right_banners` AS `RightBanner` LEFT JOIN `ck_images` AS `Image` ON (`RightBanner`.`image_id` = `Image`.`id`) WHERE `RightBanner`.`status` = 'active' 440
36SELECT `RightLink`.`id`, `RightLink`.`name`, `RightLink`.`url`, `RightLink`.`status`, `RightLink`.`created`, `RightLink`.`modified` FROM `ck_right_links` AS `RightLink` WHERE `RightLink`.`status` = 'active' 220
37SHOW FULL COLUMNS FROM `ck_settings`443
38SELECT `Setting`.`id`, `Setting`.`key`, `Setting`.`value`, `Setting`.`modified` FROM `ck_settings` AS `Setting` WHERE `Setting`.`key` = 'meta_keywords' LIMIT 1110
39SELECT `User`.`id`, `User`.`role`, `User`.`contact_id`, `User`.`username`, `User`.`password`, `User`.`status`, `User`.`active`, `User`.`login_count`, `User`.`last_login`, `User`.`created`, `User`.`modified`, `Contact`.`id`, `Contact`.`first_name`, `Contact`.`surname`, `Contact`.`email`, `Contact`.`website`, `Contact`.`address_1`, `Contact`.`address_2`, `Contact`.`city`, `Contact`.`postcode`, `Contact`.`country_code`, `Contact`.`telephone`, `Contact`.`organisation`, `Contact`.`created`, `Contact`.`modified`, (CONCAT(`Contact`.`first_name`,' ',`Contact`.`surname`)) AS `Contact__name` FROM `ck_users` AS `User` LEFT JOIN `ck_contacts` AS `Contact` ON (`User`.`contact_id` = `Contact`.`id`) WHERE `User`.`id` IS NULL LIMIT 1000
40SELECT `Contact`.`id`, `Contact`.`first_name`, `Contact`.`surname`, `Contact`.`email`, `Contact`.`website`, `Contact`.`address_1`, `Contact`.`address_2`, `Contact`.`city`, `Contact`.`postcode`, `Contact`.`country_code`, `Contact`.`telephone`, `Contact`.`organisation`, `Contact`.`created`, `Contact`.`modified`, (CONCAT(`Contact`.`first_name`,' ',`Contact`.`surname`)) AS `Contact__name` FROM `ck_contacts` AS `Contact` WHERE `Contact`.`id` IS NULL LIMIT 1000